Key concepts: externalities, waste management, economic sectors, stakeholders, per capita, environmental justice
Introduction: What are externalities?
Positive and negative externalities.
Plastic pollution: A negative externality.
The root of the problem
How much of it? Plastic in numbers.
Per country vs per capita waste.
Stakeholders and lobby groups.
Case Study: Tourism in Bali
Tourists and plastic pollution
Working on solutions: Tourist tax
At the end of this module students:
Can describe the difference between positive and negative externalities, and how plastic pollution is explained as a negative externality.
Can explain that negative externalities indicate market failure, and can discuss options on how this can be solved through incentives in the market.
Can list which actors play a role in the issue, and explain where the problem comes from .
Can describe to concept of environmental justice in the context of plastic pollution.
Are able to apply the concept of negative externalities to various case studies.
Collective Action Problems
KEY CONCEPTS: collective action problem, tragedy of the commons, typology of goods, free riding, common pool resources, polluter pays principle
Two parts of collective action problems
Tragedy of the commons
How to deal with collective action problems?
Polluter pays principle
Deposit refund schemes
Plastic bag tax
Who owns the ocean?
Garbage patches in international waters
Common pool resource management
At the end of this module students can:
Describe the concept and theory of collective action problems, and explain how this applies to plastic pollution
Describe the four types of goods, and explain what common pool resources are and why no one takes responsibility to govern them.
Discuss how the ocean complicates the plastic pollution problem by crossing boundaries and demanding intergovernmental management.
Explain how the polluter pays principle may help in solving plastic pollution and similar collective action problems.